MARUF is an Arabic word which means “well-known” and “familiar”. The Qur’an uses this word in the meaning of “Right”. It signifies that Right is well known and familiar and that it is the duty of civil societies to enjoin others what is right. Right or Rights must be well known and familiar. In other words it is a social construction in the sense that it is through social discourse that it becomes well-known. People agree to its being right on the basis of a consensus that develops by a process of mass communication, debate and social understanding. A civil society is successful if it keeps this process of communication and discourse continuous.



Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong: They are the ones to attain felicity.

[Al-Qur’an,  (Al-i-Imran, The Family of Imran, 003:104]

Maruf is a dynamic concept for mass communication, especially with reference to religious understanding. It signifies knowledge, acceptability, communicativity, and consensus based normativity. Maruf suggests a process of social construction, rather than authority based communication.

There are several other words constructed from the Arabic root ‘A-R-F, that are used in this Website.

AWARIF: Signs, (used here for Categories)

URF (MARUF) : beneficence, kindness, custom, conventions, habit, practices, norms, well known, common good, tradition (used here for Normativity)

IRFAN: Search, Cognition, Knowledge, Perception (used here for Work/Research in progress)

TAARUF/ TARRUF : information, introduction, acquaintance, (Used here for Profile)

TARIF: definition, announcement, notification, information, instruction, identification, characterization, communication (Used here for Communicativity)

MARIFA: Skills, cognition, conversance, conversation, intellection, learning (Used here for Discourse)

MAARIF : information, lore, knowledge,  culture, experience (Used here for Database)

Awarif [categories]

URF: Normativity:Essays and Papers on normativity, Law and society

TARIF: Communicativity

taarufTAARUF: Profile: Personal information, Profile, Conferences, List of Publications

IRFAN: Search:Work/ Research  in progress

MARIFA: Discourse:Reviews, Blogs

MAARIF: Database:Fatawa, Media reports on Islamic Law, Important links

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